In old Turkic: Bilge qaγan. Bilge kagan was the governor of Turkic people in 717-734. He was born in Otuken on coast of Orkhon river in 683. He is a senior son of Kutlug (Elteris) kagan, brother of Kultegin. He together with his younger brother Kultegin created a great empire in nomad’s history thus keeping unity of Turkic ethnos.
“Khosho Tsaidam”, “The Khosho tsaidam monument”, “The Bilge kagan monument”, “Bilge kagan Sacred place”, “The Memorial complex for Bilge kagan”
The complex is located on left Orkhon riverside in 45 km to the north from the ancient city Karakorum, 400 km to a southwest from the present capital of Mongolia Ulaanbaatar, 500 m southeast of the Kultegin memorial complex at N47º20´ - E102º50´.
A stele, stone turtles, statues and other components are stored in warehouses. Bilge kagan’s and his wife’s stone sculptures are kept in The National Historical Museum of Mongolia. A square stone is on its site, and location of one statue is unknown.
The complex consists of following parts:
1. A quadrangular construction – 72 x 36 m
2. A mausoleum with four columns – 16х16 m
3. A stele – 3.45 х 1.74 х0.78 m
4. A stone turtle – 2.29 х 0.72 х 0.44 m
5. Bilge kagan’s marble statue
6. Bilge kagan wife’s marble statue
7. 8 stone statues
8. A square stone (14 tonne) with a hole 2.2 x 2.7 x 1.07 m, D=0.7 м
9. 4 stone boxes
10. 2 statues of lions
11. 2 statues of sheep
12. Balbal stones (the erected stone sequence) more than 256, they last up to 2300 m.
The Bilge kagan memorial complex was set within an enclosure. The walls decorated inside with pictures.
The stele was set into the stone turtle. The inscribed stone has twisted dragon at its top. There is an image of ibex right on the center of the top. The ibex is the sign of kagans. Turkic inscriptions are on all three faces and two sides of the stele. Mourning words of the Chinese emperor of Tan dynasty are on the back of the stele.
Height of the stele – 3.33 m, width is 1.32 m, and thickness is 0.46 m.
N.M.Jadrintsev, the member of the Geographical Society of Russian Imperial Academy 120, researched and reported for the first time. After that it was published in the Atlas of Finnish-Ugrian Scientific Council 162 as result of following expedition in 1891-93. Then it was published in the Atlas of Russian Science Academy 163.
The Bilge kagan inscriptions were translated to Russian and German languages by Russian linguist W.Radloff in 1894164.
Then V.Thomsen, H.N.Orhun, S.E.Malov, T.Tekin and other scientists made their new scientific translations and comments165. M.Zholdasbekov, G.Aidarov, K.Sartkozhauly conducted researches in studying language of the inscription and translation into Kazakh166.
Mongolian archeologist D.Bayar conducted detailed research of the stone sculptures and made architectural measurements and scientific descriptions 167.
Mongolian and Turkish archaeologists collaborated in comprehensive excavation and study of the area in 2000-2001. There were found precious products at the archeological excavations. Among these findings it is especially necessary to note a gold crown with jewels 170.