The beginning of the Middle Ages.
Mainz 169a,b+c,d (T I)
Found during the archeological excavations in the First German Turfan expedition (Erste Preußische Turfanexpedition 409) in East Turkestan.
It is kept in the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences (Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften).
4 fragments are glazed together and 3 (a-c) of them are parts of one manuscript.
)anuscript: Old Turkic.
Paper: a-c: dense, smooth, yellow; d: dense, ink is water damaged.
Quantity of lines: a: 3 lines in each in A and B; b+c: 4 lines in each in A and B; d: 4 lines in each in A and B, but the text in A is completely indistinct.
Designations: B: a: on edge TI (pencil); c: on a right edge TI (pencil); d: on edge TI (pencil); A: at the top left corner there are stickers Mainz 169 and TI x 21.
Characteristics: Colon marks are outlined in red; B: a: Uig. italics in a left edge: yükü(nč); b-c: uig. italics in a left edge: ...] nom (...
Distance between lines: 0.8 cm.
a: 3.1 cm (height) x 4.2 cm (width); b: 3.2 cm (height) x 6.0 cm (width); c: 2.8 cm (height) x 3.1 cm (width); d: 3.4 cm (height) x 3.8 cm (width).
Sertkaya 424 considers, that the fragment “a” is the left top part of the fragment “b”. Joining them together it is possible to read 4 lines. Also he considers that all fragments are middle parts, only the fragment “a” is the bottom right edge of a page of the manuscript.